Updated: Mar 14, 2021


The essence of insolvency consists in a debtor’s ultimate inability to meet his or her financial commitments[1]. The instant paper revolves around an attempt made by the United Nations to provide for a uniform standard of provisions relating to cross border insolvency. In 1997, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law presented the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency at the UN General Assembly. Since its adoption by the General Assembly, the Model Law has been hailed as a timely and historic document[2]. However, before the Model Law is actually looked into, it would be most prudent to cover some of the preliminary areas of law relating to cross-border insolvency.

The term of ‘insolvency’ is usually confused with another having a really similar which means that of bankruptcy whereas economic condition is used to mean a state of monetary distress, the term bankruptcy is sometimes wont to see the proceedings that mark someone as associate degree insolvent. However, sometimes the two terms square measure are used interchangeably. The essence of economic condition consists during a debtor’s final inability to fulfill his or her financial commitments. The moment paper revolves around a shot created by the United Nations to produce for a homogenous standard of provisions with reference to cross border insolvency. In 1997, the World Organization Commission on International Trade Law presented the global organization UNICITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border economic condition at the UN General Assembly. Since its adoption by the overall Assembly, the Model Law has been hailed as a timely and historic document. However, before the Model Law is really looked into, it might be most prudent to hide a number of the preliminary areas of law with reference to cross border economic condition.

Cross-border economic condition could be a term which is used to describe circumstances within which associate degree insolvent debtor has assets and/or creditors in additional than one country. Several businesses have interests stretching on the far side their home jurisdictions. Corporations square measure progressively organizing their activities on a world scale, forming production chains as well as inputs that cross national boundaries.


One of the risks that every business face is that of a commerce partner's failure. Most domestic laws offer for the handling of associate in nursing insolvent enterprise. Typically, within the case of company economic condition, domestic laws can bring down procedures for; • distinctive and locating the debtors’ assets •‘Calling in’ the assets and changing them into a financial form; • distinctive and reversing any revocable or preference transactions that occurred prior to the administration • distinctive creditors and also the extent of their claims, together with determinant appropriate priority order during which claims ought to be paid;


The need of this model law aroused because of the problem that each nation has its own specific manner of managing the problems of Cross Border economic condition and bankruptcy laws that were too varied. Some nations had created arrangements with one another however still there was no uniform thanks to modify the Cross Border economic condition problems. For dealing such issue, UNCITRAL received the content of Model Law on Cross Border economic condition problems on thirty could 1997 and thereby was gone along international organization (UN) General Assembly on fifteen December 1997.

To provide bigger flexibility, it had been passed as a model law and not as a convention in order that the nations will build necessary changes in their domestic laws concerning cross-border economic condition as per the model. Until currently forty four states have adopted this model law. It focuses on authorizing, encouraging cooperation and coordination between jurisdictions, instead of making an attempt the unification of substantive economic condition law, and respects the variations among national procedural laws[3].

The present provisions for cross-border economic condition i.e. Section 234 & 235 of IBC square measure meagerly and time taking, that the government is adopting this model law as this can strengthen the framework of economic condition resolution. In context of bankruptcy laws it had been suggested in Justice Eradi Committee Report of 2000 for implementation of model law by amending half VII of corporations Act, 1956, Recognition, co-ordination and participation of creditors in foreign proceedings. Co-jointly in 2001, the N.L. Hindu deity Committee Report conjointly only if the cross border economic condition laws of Asian country is superannuated and there was a desire of Bankruptcy Code.

This Model Law will; • Provide soul right to access help to the court and to the representatives of foreign economic condition proceedings. •Give straightforward procedure for recognition of foreign continuing and appointment of foreign representatives. •Provide interim relief and automatic occupy court discretion.


The application for the popularity of foreign proceedings in India can have to be compelled to be created to the NCLT by the foreign representatives consistent to the Model Law because the judicature isn't compelled to mechanically acknowledge the coincident proceedings.

The financial condition Law Committee Report on March 2018 suggested to possess associate all-included mechanism for cross border financial condition matters because the current provisions i.e. Section 234 & 235 of IBC don't offer a comprehensive framework thus a separate chapter was needed to be inserted within the Code which can be supported UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross Border financial condition. For this, a public notice was issued by Ministry of company Affairs (hereafter stated as MoCA) on twentieth June 2018[4]. As per this notice Central Government once stepping into agreement with alternative countries, might bring overseas quality of domestic company human into thought of financial condition resolution in India. Whereas ab-initio cross border financial condition framework can apply solely to company debtors, it is extended cases of private economic condition resolution further[5].


As we glance into the facet of cross border financial condition, it needs a correct legal framework. This necessity has been recognized by the legislative assembly as while not correct legal provisions there would be a threat for the foreign investors to take a position in India. Whereas once we check up on the present scenario in India, is attractive several for nation to take a position within the country and to even established their producing units within the country. Thus so as to save lots of their interest and encourage them to take a position within the country the formulation of the law is of good importance.

India has become a destination for foreign investors. Hence, it's vital to make sure that the rights and interests of foreign investor’s square measure secured to gather their dues similar to domestic investors. It's vital that correct financial condition regime is established if India needs to market foreign direct investment. A cross border financial condition law helps in providing effective mechanisms for handling cross border financial condition. It's done by increasing cooperation and reciprocity amongst completely different courts and competent authorities. The UNCITRAL has additionally given aspects of cross border financial condition and has given procedural framework with regard to financial condition for potency within the administration. As once we verify the facet of financial condition it needs several advanced problems in many areas of law in several jurisdictions.

So keeping seeable the Model Law, MoCA has issued a public notice on cross border financial condition which might be supplementary within the IBC itself. With the incorporation of this public notice within the Code, an identical mechanism are followed by numerous countries that additionally enhance cooperation among them. however there square measure numerous flaws within the public notice just like the definitions of sure terms aren't provided or is ambiguous, additionally there square measure flaws in sure provisions that ought to be taken into thought before enacting such a public notice as a chapter within the Code. This public notice once incorporated into the IBC can resolve the matter of the cumbersome method offered in Section 234 and 235 of the IBC that has been followed until currently and thereby can provide quicker and correct remedy to the foreign creditors in cross border financial condition matters if the deficiencies provided square measure resolved too.



[1] Fletcher, Ian F., THE LAW OF INSOLVENCY, Sweet and Maxwell, London, 2002, pg 1

[2] Fletcher, Ian F., INSOLVENCY IN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1999, pg 329 [3]UNCITRAL, available at http://www.uncitral.org/uncitral/en/uncitral_texts/insolvency/1997Model.html [4]Supra 5 [5]ENS Economic Bureau, Draft on cross-border insolvency: Banks to get access to overseas assets of firms undergoing resolution, The Indian Express (22/06/2018),available at https://indianexpress.com/article/business/banking-and-finance/draft-on-cross-border-insolvency-banks-to-get-access-to-overseas-assets-of-firms-undergoing-resolution-5227800/lite/


Author - Pritika Nagpal

Student at JIMS school of law, Gr.Noida Affiliated to GGSIPU

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